Abbreviations and Acronyms

45Q - 45Q tax credit

AFOLU - agriculture, forestry, and other land use

ARPA-E - Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy

ASU - air separation unit

Bbl - barrel of oil

BECCS - bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration/storage

BTU/mmBTU - British thermal unit/one million British thermal units

C - carbon

CAPEX - capital expenditures

CCS - carbon capture and storage

CCU - carbon capture and utilization

CCUS - carbon capture, utilization, and storage

CDL - cropland data layer

CDR - carbon dioxide removal

CI - carbon intensity

CKD - cement kiln dust

CLT - cross-laminated timber

CO2 - carbon dioxide

CO2eq - CO2 equivalent

CRF - capital recovery factor

CRMS - Coastwide Reference Monitoring System

CSP - concentrated solar power

CWPPRA - Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act

DAC - direct air capture

DOE - United States Department of Energy

EIA - United States Energy Information Administration

EJ - exajoule

EOR - enhanced oil recovery

EPA - Environmental Protection Agency

EU - European Union

FOAK/Nth-OAK - first-of-a-kind (FOAK) or nth-of-a-kind

GCCC - Gulf Coast Carbon Center

GHG - greenhouse gas

GIS - geographic information system

Gt - gigatonne

GTM - global timber model

GWP - global warming potential

Ha - hectare

HE - hard-to-avoid emissions

HHV - higher heating value

IAM - integrated assessment model

IEAGHG - International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Programme

IFM - improved forest management

IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

ISBL - inside battery limits

ISO - International Standards Organization

J - Joule

kJ - kilojoule

Kt - kilotonne

kW - kilowatt

kWh - kilowatt-hour

LCA - life cycle analysis

LCFS - low-carbon fuel standard

LED - low energy demand scenario

LHV - lower heating value

LR - learning rate

MJ - megajoule

Mt - megatonne ( = 1000 kg)

MW - megawatt

NASEM - National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine

NET - negative emissions technology

OSBL - outside battery limits

PGE - platinum group elements

pH - potential of hydrogen; more precisely, the negative of the log of the hydrogen ion concentration

ppm - parts per million

PSU - practical salinity units

PV - photovoltaics

RCP - representative concentration pathway

RD&D - research, development, and demonstration

SAU - storage assessment unit

SBSTA - Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice

SDWA - Safe Drinking Water Act

SLCP - short-lived climate pollutant

SMR - steam methane reformation

SOC - soil organic carbon

SRM - solar radiation management

t - tonne (1000 kg), also sometime mt or metric ton

TEA - techno-economic analysis

TRL - technology readiness level

UN - United Nations

UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme

UNFCCC - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

USDA - United States Department of Agriculture

USGS - United States Geological Survey

WACC - weighted average cost of capital

WBCSD - World Business Council for Sustainable Development

WGSR - water-gas shift reaction

WRI - World Resources Institute

wt - weight

source: J Wilcox, B Kolosz, & J Freeman (2021) CDR Primer